Monday, May 14, 2012


Sauvakävely by Marko Kantaneva – Translated From The Original 1997 Finnish Publication


Those in the Nordic Walking community who have an interest in the origins of this great activity will have encountered the word Sauvakävely. The term is Finnish and its literal translation is “Pole Walking”. It is now known worldwide as Nordic Walking.

Sauva = Pole: Kävely = Walking

This is an English translation of Marko Kantaneva’s much discussed but seldom seen original article – “Sauvakävely”. First published in 1997 and in Finnish only.

The original text does not use the term Nordic Walking as we had to wait until later before that name was created. However, to avoid confusion Marko has used the term Nordic walking throughout the translated text.

Translated by Marko Kantaneva and Edited by Malcolm Jarvis (Leeds, England)

What is Nordic Walking?

It’s a well known fact that cross country skiers have used ski poles for a long time as part of their summer conditioning because with poles it’s possible to do a good imitation of classic cross-country skiing technique whilst going uphill. With poles, skiers have completed long hikes on the fells and in the forests of Lapland; bounding and running uphill and doing very hard, special high intensity exercises in swamps [1] with a backpack filled with stones!

For ordinary people in search of general fitness and conditioning there is no need to do these types of very intensive sporting exercises in order to be able to achieve excellent results from training with poles. Actually, anyone can easily find a suitable and comfortable level of Nordic walking in order to have a highly effective, fun, but at the same time a very functional all-in-one outdoor exercise.

Walking with poles gives a really new type of opportunity to simultaneously achieve respiratory and cardio-vascular fitness and muscular strengthening all at the same time in just one outdoor exercise session! It’s also my experience that the secrets and benefits of Nordic walking become evident at once for those who have tried it and it’s also clear that there will be a huge boom in Nordic walking to come in the near future - in our country and worldwide - when the word gets out.

The idea that walking with poles as a serious outdoor exercise method (especially for the very first time) for some seems to be a big mental threshold to cross because the whole idea is so peculiar (almost ridiculous – and too easy). Me - walking with poles in the middle of summer? Its very hard to imagine oneself taking a pair of poles to go and walk in public on the roads, in parks, forests and sidewalks with a look on the face that says ”Hey it might look funny but it’s good for you”.

In reality its best to be prepared for comments like: ”Have you lost your skiis (or your mind)?” – ”I saw your skiis earlier today - they were going in that direction by themselves (hahaa)” – ”Hey, winter is gone already neighbour! (more laughter)”. However, the Nordic walker doesn’t need to worry because their barking dogs never bite. Instead, the proud pole walker can just go on with a smile and be consoled with the thought: ”My physical condition is getting better and better with every single step I take and push I make”.


It is clear that in Nordic walking the poles should be shorter in length than those used in classic cross country skiing technique. This is because there are no skiis or depth of snow under the walker´s feet (poles) during the walking action. Also with poles and using a normal walking action it is not possible to do as long a stride, or to slide, as is possible with skiis on a ski track.

From the point of view of a person who is in average physical condition the best way to obtain suitable poles for Nordic walking is to visit a sports shop or department store’s sports section. For Nordic walking use there is no sense in choosing the best available cross country ski racing poles. A suitable price level for ski poles for Nordic walking use is around 200 Finnish marks.

When walking in the summer time on forest paths it might be beneficial if the poles used have a similar spiketip like that used on alpine and trekking poles. Those have a crown type of spiketip and a smaller basket than is normally used on cross country ski poles. With this type of alpine or trekking pole spiketips and baskets it is possible to avoid the problem which happens with a cross country ski pole sharp spike tip. A cross country pole spike tip picks up leaves, twigs and other trash. When storing the poles at home, to protect the floors or to make walking with poles on asphalt a ”softer” experience, it would be a good idea to use a kind of rubber plug over the pole spiketips. When the asphalt part of the route ends the rubber plug is easy to take off to continue walking on forest paths just with spiketips.

Length Criteria of Nordic Walking Poles

Walker / height - Poles / length

- 150-160 cm = 115 cm

- 161-170 cm = 120 cm

- 171-180 cm = 125 cm

- 181-190 cm = 130 cm

- 191-200 cm = 135 cm

The pole lengths presented in the table ”Length Criteria of Nordic Walking Poles” above - are based on long term field testing and experience and have been found in practice to be generally well suited for people when comparing the pole length (cm) to their height (cm).

Ski poles are available for people shorter that 150 cm or taller than 2 meters. A person shorter than 150 cm should use a ski pole 5 – 10 cm shorter than the minimum length mentioned in the table. A person over 2 meters tall should use 5 – 10 cm longer ski poles than that mentioned as a maximum length in the pole length table. Of course, in the end everyone can decide for themselves the length of ski poles they like to use for Nordic walking.

When starting out pole walking it’s not necessary to immediately go and buy new and correctly sized cross country ski, trekking or alpine poles. To begin with, cross country ski poles already in the closet at home will be just fine.

What Kind of Training is Pole Walking

In Nordic walking the training effect is very comprehensive because all main the muscle groups are in use, just like in a cross country skiing action. To put it simply – the legs and hips will receive active partnership from the arms and upper body muscles as a result of the pole walking action. This important detail – adding the upper body muscles to support your walking action makes it a more comprehensive and effective total body workout.

The Nordic walking training effect is up to 40% more effective than walking without poles. In practice this is significant for people who are looking for an effective but easy going exercise form. There is no need to increase walking speed - but with a pair of poles in the hands you will get much more of a comprehensive exercise which will improve respiratory function, cardio vascular and muscle condition - all during one exercise.

Nordic Walking Technique

Nordic walking technique is very similar to classic cross country skiing technique. It’s easy to master the basic rhythm of Nordic walking after a short period because the rhythm and movement is very natural and follows a similar pattern to a walking or running rhythm.

It is important in pole walking that the arm movement should allow the grip of the pole to always move from back to front so that the fist leads the arm from behind to the front and from the front to the back with both arms acting alternately.

When pushing, each pole will find its natural angle. So when the front arm (right) is bent to about a 90 degrees angle and the pole tip is placed into the ground the tip is then level with the rear foot – and then the angle of pole to the ground is about 75 degrees.

The main thing is that you never throw the pole tips to the front which, from the point of view of arm/pole work, makes pole walking very tense and will lead to missing all of the power from the pole push. Practise has shown that there is no reason to pay too much attention to technique details because pole walking movements are very natural. Actually it’s the same as at age 6 months when you last crawled on all fours on the floor.

It’s a good hint to remember that arms and legs should move in a similar way and rhythm as they do in a normal fast walking action (long stride and arm work). There is only the need to add to the walking action the pole plant to the ground, the pull of the pole and at the end of the arm movement, the push of the pole. In these three phases it is also good to remember not to grip the pole too tightly and to release the palm of the hand just a little against the pole straps at the end of the each pole push to create a longer stride.

After a short time the movements of pole walking will come more fluid and relaxed. Practice has shown that after a short introduction people will find the natural and correct rhythm fairly quickly. You just don´t need to try and think too much – let it flow.

Moderate Training

The basic form of Nordic walking training is a long lasting endurance type of walking - four feet walking. This type of exercise session should last from 30 minutes up to two hours depending on your level of physical conditition. The level and pace of pole walking exercise should be moderate, say at a heart rate of 120 to 150 beats per minute. If you are not able to measure heart rate with a heart rate monitor, it is possible to use instead the rule of NAS (Need to be Able to Speak) to make sure the correct individual exercise exertion level is reached but not exceeded.

The best terrain for Nordic walking training is a mixed type of ground but should not include very steep hills. However, the natural variation of terrain will make pole walking training both great fun and functional. On a flat part of the track you can increase your stride length assisted by longer pole pushes. Going uphill you will experience a new feeling of ”four wheel drive” - thanks to strong arm work - and on the downhill you can jog to relax and allow your muscles to recover from the hard exertion.

When beginning Nordic walking, especially if you know that your physical condition is not in the best possible shape, it’s better to select training paths in flat terrain, like asphalt roads or parks, than from very steep cross country paths. Step by step - together with improved physical condition, you can pick up steeper paths where to do your Nordic walking training sessions.

The moderate exercise level in pole walking is suitable for most ordinary people (not fitness crazy types). Simply, it is ideal for those who are in need of regular outdoor exercise which will fullfil the training needs of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems and muscles all at the same time in one session.

Additional Performance with Poles

If you are looking to improve your fitness and performance level, for example, towards long distance skiing events in the winter time, like the Wasaloppet or similar, then Nordic walking
special uphill exercises are the most suitable training for you. Remember, the following two exercise examples, uphill training and bounding with poles, are more suitable for those in
a higher level of fitness condition.

Uphill training with the poles will be ”against the clock”, for example, over 30 minutes. Then it does not matter how long the uphill section is. In uphill training all that is needed is to continuously keep on walking up the hill and then jogging or walking down in a relaxed manner. When walking upwards, the poles should be used very powerfully – using the poles (arms) like a second pair of legs. Instead of just walking fast you should be pulling and pushing yourself with the poles up the hill. Once you have reached the top you should turn back down again. On the way down walk or jog to allow recovery from the exertion the uphill ”four feet walking” has caused you.

The uphill training with the poles will improve performance ability, aerobic endurance and recovery metabolism. To be able to do uphill training exercises you should be at least in a fairly good shape – beginners should remember that the heart rate will rise very quickly in an uphill training session.

Bounding with the poles uphill should be done after a very careful warm up session - for example after 15 to 20 minutes of rapid pole walking. The uphill part should be quite short - lasting about only 20 to 60 seconds on each run. The steepness of the hill should allow easy jumping with the poles from the starting point to the top and also be easy to jog or walk down again afterwards. It is best if the path is clear so that there will not be any possible risk of hurting yourself when jogging back down from the top.

The uphill bounding with poles is supposed to be like in winter time with cross country skiis using ”herringbone jumps”. It’s also possible to go uphill by running with the poles if it’s too difficult to find the rhythm of leg and arm work coordination whilst bounding. Speed is not important, so aim mainly for careful arm, leg and footwork with each push and bound you make. When you are back at the starting point take a short easy pole walk for 2 or 3 minutes to cool down before you start bounding up again. Bounding with poles routines should last from 20 to 60 minutes in total depending on your physical condition. Bounding uphill with the poles improves anaerobic
condition and makes ”cross country skiing muscles” – arms, buttocks, legs, back and abdominals stronger.

Remember: Uphill exercises are suitable for persons who are already in good shape and are looking for a more competitive athletic fitness condition.

Muscle Recovery with Nordic Walking

It’s possible to relieve painful leg muscles, joints and bones after a hard training session or after a long working day with pole walking on a swamp [1] or soft forest ground. The exercise has to be at a very low tempo and should be easy. This type of exercise should last around a maximum of half an hour. On a swamp, quiet and calm pole walking is very comfortable because the muscles and bones will not get tired from those ’hits’ they normally take with every step and pole push. Quiet and calm pole walking on a swamp or soft forest ground is a perfect way for the whole body to recover from the hard physical and mental exertions of the day.

Hint: On a swamp area it is also possible to do an exercise similar to uphill training, but on a swamp or soft ground the joints, muscles and bones will not exhaust so completely because the ’hits’ the legs and arms take are much softer.

Try It!

Everyone should at least once go and try this new way to improve respiratory fitness, cardio vascular and muscle conditition all in one comprehensive exercise. So, put your walking shoes on your feet, take your poles from the winter closet and go out to have a Nordic walk. Head off in the direction of park or forest paths swinging your poles and smiling in the spring sunshine and enjoy ’four feet walking’ ( tsup – tsup – tsup...).

Editor’s note:

Ref [1] above: You will note that Marko talks about pole walking in a “swamp”. In Finland a swamp includes areas of soggy, soft ground not dissimilar to a “wet meadow”.

Not only do Nordic Walkers and skiers use such terrain it is also the preferred surface for games of “Swamp Football (soccer)”. Interestingly this sport started in the UK, in the town of  Bishop Auckland and it still played there on a regular basis. The first organised championships were held in Finland in 1998.

For More Information about Marko Kantaneva visit:


Sauvakävely (Pole Walking) - An Introduction To Marko Kantaneva's Original 1997 Article (by Malcolm Jarvis)

Those in the Nordic Walking community who have an interest in the origins of this great activity will have encountered the word Sauvakävely. The term is Finnish and its literal translation is Pole Walking:

Sauva = Pole:  Kävely = Walking.

Marko Kantaneva
Importantly the term was adopted by the Finnish Nordic Walking pioneer Marko Kantaneva to describe a discrete form of fitness walking which he developed and codified during the 1990’s.

Marko had realised that walking with poles could be more than just a form of training for skiers but saw the potential for an exercise modality suitable for everyone.

In 1991-93 whilst he was teaching Phys Ed at a school in eastern Finland he began to ponder on how the activity might be developed.

Marko went on to study at the highly respected Sports Institute of Finland at Vierumäki where,amongst other things, he continued to develop his thinking about pole walking. So much so, he went on to include his ideas and analysis in his graduation thesis of 1996.

Shortly afterwards, the Institute was contacted by Tuomo Jantunen who, at the time, was the Director of the Finnish organisation Suomen Latu Ry, a national association which promotes outdoor activities. Mr Jantunen was also enthusiastic about the idea of using poles for fitness walking and it seems likely that he had heard about the work being done at Vierumäki. The outcome was that Mr Jantunen commissioned Marko to write an article describing his pole walking concept for publication in the Suomen Latu newsletter. In return for a six page manuscript, Suomen Latu agreed to offer Marko an educational scholarship of 1000 Finnish Marks (roughly $210 US) which was used to help fund his studies.

Marko entitled the article “Sauvakävely” and, using an approachable style, he fully described the technique he had developed and documented the benefits and parameters of the activity. It might be said that this manuscript was the touchstone for what was to become known worldwide as Nordic Walking.

Until recently this document was available in the Finnish language only. However, it has been translated into English by Marko with the assistance of Malcolm Jarvis (See next post).

For More Information about Marko Kantaneva visit:

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